1966 - Arnold, Thomas. New Zealand letters of Thomas Arnold the younger... - New Zealand, p 40-169
Twain was taken by his physical height, his courtesy, and his air of kindness. Most of all, he was impressed at the tremendous autocratic power the czar possessed over seventy million people, for all of them would at a nod "spring to his bidding" But contemplating this epitome of political power, Twain reverted to democratic aggression.
As the party finally approached the Holy Land, the commentary began to focus on Christianity in its early guises. Much of Mark Twain's reaction is satiric and skeptical. The Seven Sleepers of Ephesus, those Christian Rip Van Winkles, were thieves from the start; and after they awoke from their long sleep, they were profoundly distressed: "Our homes are desolate, our friends are dead. Behold, the jig is up—let us die" That is how Twain's parodic resurrection concludes.
No wonder that at the edge of the Holy Land, he makes the gray lizard the emblem of mockery of human vanity. It is "the color of ashes; and ashes are the symbol of hopes that have perished. To be sure, a good portion of Mark Twain's animus toward organized Christianity was directed against his contemporaries, the aging pilgrims, who were vandals and souvenir hunters and who broke the spirit of religious law while keeping the letter of it; against the biblical commentators and the preachers who damaged their religion through obtuseness; and against all who would kill those who truly and fearlessly preached the reality of Christ , —52, , — Any idealist or imaginative human was prey for their malice.
Twain remarks that when the elders saw Joseph, they "were glad. They said 'Lo, here is this dreamer—let us kill him'" And the "image-breakers and tomb-desecrators" of the Quaker City were of a piece with such hard-eyed men By contrast, to Mark Twain's mind, there had once been a superior order of beings. For him, the authors of the Bible had the supreme capacity for telling their stories in simple language and without intruding their own personalities Christ himself had the gift of making the afflicted whole again with a word But even in Christ's lifetime, oppressive layers of venality and stupidity smothered that freshness.
When his party passed through Shechem, a Samaritan community now Nablus , Mark Twain concluded his remarks with what would appear to be a joke. He says that while there he purchased "a secret document" of "extraordinary interest" that he proposed to publish as soon as he. Presumably Twain meant to satirize new archaeological discoveries that were being oversold when announced to the public, but one also feels the desire that such potent secrets might become available, supposing they were translatable. In a sense, all Twain's travel reports were attempts to comprehend hidden meanings.
CONTENTS OF VOL. II.
Unfortunately, his interpretations were often so negative that he felt they could not be made available to the American audience. He told his notebook that the second coming was an illusion, but not his public. Some of the Holy Land's illusory powers Mark Twain attributed to atmospheric effects. In reality the landscape was an ugly, dusty, rocky chaos, but under starlight or moonlight, it became a shimmering mystery — Still, "the magic of the moonlight is a vanity and a fraud and whoso putteth his trust in it shall suffer sorrow and disappointment" The explanation for such pessimism was everywhere evident.
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The party entered the Middle East through crowds of beggars, cripples, lepers, and babes with flies clustered at their eyes, their mothers too apathetic to brush them away , As the pilgrims moved toward the heart of the Christian mystery, things became progressively more miserable, more concentratedly appalling, and much less inspiring. Palestine was about the size of an American county Jerusalem was but a village of four thousand It was more than just a topographical observation for Twain to remark: "I must begin a system of reduction. I have got everything in Palestine on too large a scale" So upon reaching Bethlehem, he touched "with reverent finger, the actual spot where the infant Jesus lay, but I think—nothing" So far as this area of the world was concerned, Mark Twain's disillusionment was complete.
He had found Jerusalem "mournful and dreary and lifeless.
In the context of this depressing reality, he was obliged to visit tomb after tomb: that of Noah, Joseph, Jesus, Adam , , , But everything remained stone dead. Adam generated parodic mourning, and at the grave of Jesus, Twain exploded in disdain. The site was "scandalized by trumpery, gewgaws, and tawdry ornamentation" It was difficult, Twain said, not to get the impression that Christ had been crucified in a Catholic church This move back through time, first through the aesthetic pretensions and moral cynicism of western Europe, then into the sordid poverty of the Middle East, and finally to the fraudulence and dust of the Holy Land itself, constituted a primary revelation for Mark Twain.
The force of the incessantly dreadful poverty quite overwhelmed him. Palestine was "a hopeless, dreary, heart-broken land" All that remained of value was the memory of a good Savior. But he could not really accept the idea that this figure had once walked this ground or any ground accessible to him—"the gods of my understanding have been always hidden in clouds and very far away" If the first conclusion to the long journey took place at Jaffa when they returned to the ship—"the long pilgrimage was ended"—five more chapters and a "Conclusion" were yet to follow. The Innocents Abroad winds down through a series of endings.
The tentativeness and variety of the book's gestures at closure suggest Mark Twain's own uncertain commitment. The great search back through time to the heart of Christianity had proved to be a terrible deception. Jaffa offered a farcical footnote to this loss of illusions in the encounter with the remnants of the "Adams Jaffa Colony. Mark Twain identifies this leader by four roles that in his experience were always at best equivocal: actor,. At heart, Adams was a confidence man, no better in kind than those guidebook writers and Christian ministers and guides whom Mark Twain had learned to distrust.
The same mocking reality that gave this false leader the name Adams designated a Moses as their savior—Moses Beach of the New York Sun, who charitably paid their fares back to Maine. The second conclusion occurred when the party reached the Egyptian Sphinx. The Sphinx impressed Mark Twain deeply. He reads into its visage feelings that are often discovered in Jesus Christ. There was a dignity not of the earth in its mien, and in its countenance a benignity such as never any thing human wore" — There is no jeering here about a nose broken off, such as Twain had indulged in with European statues.
Rather, he is impressed by the stoic impassivity of the Sphinx.
It has contemplated the ocean of human misery for five thousand years, not judging it, not mocking it, not condemning it—"pathos dwells in these grave eyes"—but merely looking over and past history " at nothing—nothing but distance and vacancy" In the presence of the Sphinx, Twain said that he felt something of what he supposed he would feel when he was at last standing "in the awful presence of God" If so, it was a majestic but not a condemnatory deity.
Although Twain could not incorporate the associations that the Sphinx generated in him into any acceptable cosmic system, here was a power he could revere—asexual, all-knowing, sympathetic but reserved, and ultimately above the tumult and confusion, knowing that finally nothing means anything, that at the farthest reach of this preternatural vision there was only "distance and vacancy" For Everett Emerson, the description of the Sphinx "goes on and on" and is no more than "senti-mental rhetoric" composed to please Olivia Langdon and Mrs.
Clemens [Philadelphia, ], 51, The third ending descends into involvement and contempt again. It occurs with the party's actual arrival back in New York harbor. One can detect Mark Twain's mood in the last phrase of that chapter: "and the long strange cruise was over. Amen" But of course the book was still not complete because the feelings of disappointment and vexation suggested by that "Amen" had to be purged one last time, as they then were by Twain's reprinting the savagely satiric article he had written for the New York Herald upon their return.
The article offended many of the passengers because of Twain's unconcealed resentment at having spent more than five months in the company of "venerable fossils" But when Twain says that the expedition might better have been called "The Grand Holy Land Funeral Procession," one can see that quite beyond the aged participants, much had died for him on this pilgrimage.
Not that he was a committed Christian before he visited the Holy Land. In part he had joined the trip with the expectation that it would afford materials to satirize. On the other hand, Twain had not been altogether a disbeliever either, and the tawdry grimness of the Holy Land had certainly dispelled a number of illusions.
The "Conclusion" proper to the whole narrative was written a year later. In a somewhat mellower mood, Mark Twain first offered a tribute to his fellow passengers, then turned to enumerate his memories of places visited. The names of various important cities are listed with a characterization for each. Milan, Venice, and Rome all receive extended descriptions, and there is "majestic Gibraltar glorified with the rich coloring of a Spanish sunset and swimming in a sea of rainbows" But as he comes to the.
Jerusalem was only "sacred. This final ending has several revealing features.
It is, first of all, a severely idealized version of the Damascus that Mark Twain had described earlier in the book. When he first saw the city from the mountain, he thought it an incredibly beautiful oasis in a rocky hell and noted that tradition claimed that this was where the Garden of Eden had been located. No more, though.
Once Damascus was entered, "the paradise is become a very sink of pollution and uncomeliness" The principal chapter on Damascus ends with Twain's reaction to a leper hospital there—"horrible! But I think we can determine what drew Mark Twain to the later, sanitized celebration of Damascus. Jerusalem could not serve. It was too deeply discredited in his mind.
On the other hand, the association of the Garden of Eden with Damascus placed it imaginatively in that context of the innocent and naturally beautiful beginning of mankind. The fantasies of the Arabian Nights also won Twain's heart with all the magic tricks associated with genii and the high dignity of princes. Like the Sphinx, Damascus also had the virtue of unusual endurance, of surviving the vicissitudes of the swarming human insect.
And finally—it is the note. The transcendent figure, whether Colonel Sherburn on the roof of his porch in Huckleberry Finn, or Satan in The Mysterious Stranger, or the Sphinx, is a figure superior to ordinary human pretensions and as such ever central in Mark Twain's imagination. He wanted permanence, solidity, thereness. This book concludes by emphasizing how much of humanity has "vanished and been forgotten.
A symmetry exists between The Innocents Abroad and Roughing It, inadvertent, perhaps, but nonetheless there. The first book crosses the Atlantic, travels east through European culture to the old heart of Christian spiritual life. The second travels west on a physical odyssey to a crude but vital frontier, then moves out into the Pacific to the heart of a primitive, supposedly Edenic, culture. Roughing It is the more comfortable book, more amused, revivified, energetic.
Although aware of the shortcomings of life in the far West, Mark Twain adapted to it with a cheerful admiration. Without necessarily championing its superiority, Roughing It affirms the value of American life in the raw. It remained with him in when he was composing Roughing It. He told his sister Pamela not only that he was "writing a book like the 'Innocents' in size and style," but also that the new book had "a great pyramid" in it MTL This pyramid was constructed of mail sacks unloaded from the stagecoach in which Twain was traveling RI, The West had a "grim sphynx" too.
She boarded the stagecoach and sat in absorbed silence, slapping mosquitoes and contemplating their crushed bodies with satisfaction until Twain opened a conversation with her.
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Once stirred into speech, she rained a deluge of "dislocated gram-. The West also had a new Moses in the form of a stage driver of such prodigious energy that a young American, when told that Moses had led his people for forty years over "the sandy desolation," responded: " Forty years? Only three hundred miles? Ben Holliday would have fetched them through in thirty-six hours! Here were the first symbolic indications that Roughing It would take its readers in a direction opposite, thematically as well as geographically, to that followed in The Innocents Abroad.http://habitpodcast.com/1657.php
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The authorial attitude differs too. Although Mark Twain plays the innocent on this trip as well, he does so cheerfully. He encounters just as many frauds, obstacles, and disillusionments as he had in Europe and the Holy Land, but now they tend to strike him as amusing. Roughing It dramatizes how ignorant the narrator then was, how naive; how deceptive the world was and is; and how cruel other people can be. Yet nothing much happens that is serious. The central mood of the book is optimistically comic. Roughing It is a book of high energy, of mostly cartoon violence.
A cat is blown into the sky by a blast at a quartz mine, then drops down and lands, singed and irritable but essentially unhurt Later there is another blast, this time involving a human who, while preparing explosives, accidentally sets them off and is blown so high that he looks, progressively, no larger than a boy, a doll, a bee. When he descends sixteen minutes later, the company docks him for the time he was away from his job — People roar down mountainsides aboard avalanches, and they fly through the air on Washoe zephyrs, but it is all for amusement, a celebration of American energy as exhibited in the land and in the people 84, It is true that the background contains brutal incidents, including people being terrorized by desperadoes and a.
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Chinese being stoned to death, but in the main the mood is buoyant. There's a lot of speed and vigorous motion: a swift coyote, a runaway Mexican plug, a pony express rider, earthquakes. Mark Twain's delight in the untrammeled West is manifest: it's exhilarating and yet any real dangers are conjured away. For example, Twain records being in a storm on Mono Lake.