Stern This conception goes back to the romantic critics, especially Schlegel and Hegel. This view of tragedy did succeed in silencing the Aristotelian conception which harbors no idea of conflict. This definition accounts for all the tragedies we possess, while the romantic one would not embrace or embrace only very partially plays like the Trachiniae , Alcestis , Trojan Women , and many others. As an eccentric example of an original polarity that recalls that of Nietzsche in its ambitious comprehensiveness, as well as on some specific points, I present here the essay of Carlo Diano, Forma ed evento , an essay that enjoyed popularity in Italy in the sixties and the seventies As Achilles lives only to obtain immortal kleos , he breathes the aura of an absolute that has no temporality nor geography.
Like him, all the figures of Form place themselves outside space and time, and therefore outside the accidentality of the events. This divine discourse Logos has reason and providence. Though Diano does not deal with the question of semiotics in the relation between Event and Logos it is possible for us to draw it and illuminate it. The Logos drags men to the accomplishment of its reason even if men do not wish it. An event is a divine word, and all the events together are the Logos itself.
The signifier is missing. The metaphysical stance holds in its grip the Stoic event, as we have seen, but more obviously the Forms, as they appear visibly, phenomenologically, in their identity with being. The constant presence of the gods to the human actions functions also as a narrative device that assures the listeners and readers of the truth of these actions and of their enormous interest. This function becomes explicit at some crucial moments 17 and reveals the divine presence as a narrative expediency, without necessarily depriving them of divine power.
It is easy to see a tension or even a discrepancy between the majestic nodding of Zeus in Iliad , I, and the funny description of his uxorial troubles. Many interpreters indeed have preferred to consider the Homeric gods as literary, i. They appear as the narrative needs them to appear.
In all these conditions, what does the identity between form and being really mean? A number of scholars have interpreted Greek tragedy as a ritualized Dionysiac representation, arguing from the nature of its plot, which they equate with cult aetiology crisis, confusion, and re-establishment of the order , from the thematic preeminence of sacrifices and other rituals funerals, supplications, etc. I exemplify this new tendency by one of its strong theoretician, Richard Seaford, who has presented a new face of Dionysus in Greek culture.
In his book 20 , the result of years of research, he discovers in Dionysus a principle of order, of civic union, and stability, a role that deeply contrasts with that attributed to the same god by Nietzsche. The point that Dionysos, embodying the unitary force of the city state, achieves the establishment of democratic order by inspiring self-destructive madness into the members of the aristocratic households 21 , is an unbelievable, even ridiculous move, if presented as a conscious political strategy 22 , and is certainly unsupported by a close reading of the texts.
To quote from Ch.
Nicolas, Anna, Marion, Gilles, Anne-Laure Ils sont morts le 13 novembre, à Paris - Libération
The play in fact shows us very little of a polis other than what is associated with the royal family, and even that little is not positive e. The ritualistic view of Greek tragedy has been recently subjected to a severe and rigorous analysis by S. Gramm , Gr. A scholion in Aristoph. Only one question is raised here concerning the metatheatrical force of passages which are thought today to provide evidence in favor of the ritualistic interpretation of Greek tragedy. As such they have no reason to dance. The text therefore calls attention to the double identity of the elders and many scholars interpret this as a break of the dramatic illusion.
As soon as the girl is slaughtered, Artemis sends the propitious wind. In one masterly gesture she shows how the marriage of the antagonist gods really works and produces children in Greek tragedy. They together bring on stage strains of music that combine the apollonian lyre greek and traditional with the dionysiac aulos the flute, foreign and barbarous , the song of the Muses companions of Apollo and the ecstatic dances of Dionysus.
This means a poetic discourse that keeps his constitutive parts in a difficult balance, in a perilous indecidability. This original conception of the pivotal terms in conflict in Greek tragedy deflates the importance so often attributed to the conflict of contents and themes. Among the themes, that become depreciated by her conception, Loraux mentions the conflict between oikos house, household and polis city-state 40 that in our times occupies the pages of so many ritualist and sociological analyses of Greek tragedy.
On this last point, the article of Fabienne Blaise 41 is particularly illuminating, as Dionysus becomes a pointed, privileged example of the extent to which the divine is unknowable to man.
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