Among the anonymous Salamanca books there is one group which can be separated from the rest, being printed in Roman characters, whilst all the others are in the more usual Gothic type. At least seven books belong to this group, the first being dated July 15th, 1 49 1. There exist other works printed at Salamanca in Roman type, with dates subsequent to 1 , but none of them have any printer's name.
The only thing we can venture to assert positively about the introduction of printing into Salamanca is that it was due to Aelius Antonius Nebrissensis, the famous orator, grammarian, and historio- grapher. It is possible that he may have been acquainted with the 1 L. It must be confessed that some time elapsed before the art found its way to Salamanca, but that it was Antonio who brought it cannot be doubted, for the first two books published there were two editions of his IntroduSiiones latinae. In the production of these and many other works, both by himself and by other writers, he manifested the greatest interest, and I believe he either superintended the press or had it in his own house.
There is a certain religious tract entitled Ensenamiento del Corazon, printed at Salamanca July 30th, , which has a very curious and unique printer's mark. It has never been reproduced in entirety, but part of it was repeated in a remarkable manner by Sancho de Lebrixa, the son of Aelius Antonius, when he established a press in his house at Granada, with the object of securing to himself the whole profit of the privileges profusely conceded to the descendants of Aelius Antonius, in consideration of the latter's great merits. The portion of the mark which I allude to is an objed: in form of the letter Y, which in the above-mentioned work, dated , was thought by Gallardo, 1 when he first described the book, to be the initial or mark of the printer.
I do not think it to be an initial or a letter at all, but rather a printer's instrument of common use in those days, as can be seen in a mark of the Ascen- sian Office at Paris, 2 representing a printer's shop. This shows to the right of the press itself two instruments, viz. Now I have found that the works executed with the utmost accuracy and splendour from to , and bearing the words apud inclytam Granatam, are due to Sancho or Xanthus, as he translates it Nebrissensis, who gives the reasons for his practising as a printer in the preface to the first 1 L.
The mark is to be found, e. Paris , , fol. The same instrument in the form of the letter is used as printer's mark by Stephanus Valerius in Panderanus, Pet. Prochiron s. Lovanii, In this and in other works claim copy- issued by the same press the same Y device — in a more letter-like spainl" shape indeed — always appears in the ornamentation of the title, and also occupies the centre of the printer's mark with the motto, ArSla est via quae duett ad vitam, which motto is sometimes repeated in the title decoration. If this Y, which appears in and in the Granada books, is really the mark of the Nebrissenses, it is extremely probable that it has a similar signification in both, and that the Salamanca tracl: must have been in some way connected with that family.
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There is another interesting point in the history of the works of Antonius Nebrissensis. I am convinced that he was one of the first authors who made use of copyright in Spain. After 1 5 1 o it is very common for Spanish printed books to bear the words Cum privilegio, with the frequent addition of ne quis alius excudat, etc. Printing privileges seem to have been granted many years pre- viously, the first book where I have found one mentioned being the Cura de la piedra, printed by Peter Hagenbach at Toledo, April 4th, Perhaps in this case it was Melchior de Gurrizo, at whose expense the book was issued, who first in Spain took advantage of an institution he had known in his native land ; for it was in Italy, especially in Venice, that printing privileges were first of all granted.
In later times it was very common for the promoters of printed books to be in possession of privileges, and in Cuenca we even meet with a silversmith, platero, Antonio de Alfaro, who seems to have made a business of the acquisition of printing privileges. But the first author who took advantage of such privilege seems to have been Antonius Nebrissensis, all the early editions of whose works were issued cum privilegio. I am led to believe that the privilege be- longed to himself, and not merely to the printer, by the tenour of the privileges granted to his heirs, and by the fadt of his always taking so active a part in the issue of every new edition.
Press of A. Antonio de In the year a new printing office was established in the western part of Castile at Zamora. Its owner, Antonio de Cen- tenera, is the counterpart to the boastful craftsman I have already alluded to, and in the colophons of his productions if colophons they can be called he sometimes omits every mention of place, date, and origin ; sometimes he merely gives his name, whilst some books have been attributed to him by inference only, and these I hesitate to accept as certainly due to him. Among the most curious of his productions is the Cuaderno de alcabalas of i It is a legal work, and does not expressly state that it was printed by him.
But there is a facT: which makes this very probable. As in other instances, a very careful scrutiny was made of the correctness of the text of these laws, and the notary had, as he was obliged to do, called some witnesses for this purpose.
Jesus fue Cesar - Vitae Parallelae
I think this will seem sufficient reason for attributing to Centenera the printing of these laws also. Another remarkable production of the same printer is the Latin grammar by Antonius Nebrissensis in Latin and Castilian, printed by order of Queen Isabella of Castile. This edition has no date, but we can assert that it was executed before , for Nebrissensis, in the preface to his Latin and Spanish Dictionary, published in this or the following year, enumerates his literary productions, mentioning the Introducciones in Spanish as having been previously issued.
source The last biographer of Centenera, Senor Fernandez Duro, 1 assumes that he was still alive in , only for the reason that with the Teoduli liber is printed a poem by Cristoval de Paradinas, who was teaching grammar in Zamora about 1 5 Possibly, however, this is merely an inadvertent error 1 Coleccion bibliografico-biografica de noticias referentes a la provincia de Zamora. Well, the year when King Ferdinand, the " lover of Christ," expelled the hated race of the Moslem from Hesperia can be no other than the year , when the last Moorish stronghold of Granada was conquered by the united efforts of Castile and Aragon.
The date of is much the more probable, for though it is the latest at which Centenera is mentioned, the interval between it and his last dated book, the Libro de los evangelios of , is inconsiderable, whereas in 15 17 there would have been a gap of no less than twenty-seven years! Centenera's office was not continued after his death ; Zamora remained without a press for a long period, and it was not until and the following years that some wandering printers came and spent a couple of years there.
I had chosen this point to insert a notice of the productions of Christopher Cofman, 2 or Cristobal de Basilea, on the authority of the statement made by Fuster 3 and Salva, 4 that he finished printing a Vida de S. Catherina de Sena at Valencia on May 11, I find, however, at the last moment see Bibliography that the book really belongs to Cofman was a native of Basel, as he tells us 1 Coleccion, p. Lope de la Qf six of Cofman ' s productions three belong to the period of in- cunabula; his latest issue is the Cancionero of 1 just mentioned.
That he printed in Salamanca, as Herr Reichardt 1 states, is not at all credible. Press of Nicolas Calafat at Mallorca. The year 1 48 5 saw no less than four new printing offices estab- lished in different places in Spanish territory. One of them indeed was very shortlived. In and Nicolas Calafat printed two books in the island of Mallorca, which, strangely enough, were the only ones produced there for more than half a century.
Both are of a religious character. The first, the Traclatus de regulis mandatorum of Gerson, was printed at the expense of one Bartho- lomew Caldentejus, who plays a considerable part in the history of the so-called University of Mallorca. The other, the Vers of Prats, seems to have been executed at the expense of Calafat himself, and completed in the monastery of the Trinity at Miramar in Val de Mussa.
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Calafat, who styles himself ingeniosus and maestre, tells us that he was a native of Val de Mussa, but we know nothing more about him. He cannot have lived, or at all events printed, for long; as when the University of Mallorca wished to print some of Raymond Lully's works in 5, it was not Calafat to whom the order was given, but Diego de Gumiel and Juan JofFre, both at Valencia.
Press of Lope de la Roca at Valencia. Another office was established in at Valencia by Lope de la Roca. He tells us repeatedly that he was a German, 2 which 1 Beitraege zur Incunabelnkunde, p. From Lope de la Roca employed a printer's mark of the simplest form. In this his initials, L R, are printed in white on a black background, surrounded by a 30 we should not suppose from the form of his name, any more than Lope de la we should in the case of Valentin Fernandez or Hermanno de Vaknci Campos. Wolfgang von Stein. It is only by mistake that Hain : states that the Copilacion de las Batallas, by Rodriguez de Almella, was printed by Juan de la Roca, and Lope only gives the Spanish form of his name as quoted above.
Had he studied more carefully the notice of Mendez he would have seen that he too doubted the existence of two different editions dated and respectively. But Mendez has proved the existence of the edition by actual in- spection, whereas Volger was only induced to doubt it by the fadt that Roca is found in at Murcia, where he printed three books in that year and then disappeared. In he is again in Valencia, and prints seven books in three years.
Lope de la Roca twice worked in partnership with others, but I do not believe that these partners were themselves printers. The first Murcia book of was executed by Roca in conjunction with Gabriel Luis de Arinyo, whose name never occurs again as a printer's, either singly or with that of Roca. But we meet with it in the celebrated Furs de Valencia, printed in that city by Lambert Palmart in In this work Arinyo is styled veinticuatro member of council of Valencia, and it is he who transmits to Palmart the order of the Cortes respecting the publication of the laws of the realm.
This is significant of the high esteem in which the first printers were held by the Spaniards, but it is not credible that a man of such social position as Arinyo should himself have managed a press. I think, therefore, that he must not be reckoned among the printers.
The upper corners of the reel- angle which forms the mark are filled up with ornaments ; the lower contain the word Ala-man. Lope de la The case of Roca's second partner is less evident. This seems to indicate that Trincher was the publisher and Roca the printer. There is another book, printed at Valencia in by Pere Tringer 1 alone, but even in the colophon of this he styles himself librere, bookseller.
He is not mentioned again, but about the family of the Trinchers and some other of its members we know something more, though it is not at Valencia that we meet with them, but in the Catalan capital, Barcelona. Though Peter Trincher published his two books in a Valencian office, it does not necessarily follow that he himself was an inhabitant of Valencia, there being plenty of instances of booksellers publishing in towns where they did not themselves reside.
He may have been an inhabitant of Barcelona, where we find others of his name. In Johann Trincher appears as a merchant established in Barcelona, trading in books and paper and other printing materials. This we learn by the contracts between Johann Luschner, another German printer of the town, of whom particulars will presently be given, and the famous monastery of Montserrat. In these contracts it is stipulated that one half of the paper necessary for the execution of the works which Luschner was to produce by order of the superiors of the monastery, was to be purchased from Franz Ferber and Johann Trincher, two German merchants estab- lished in Barcelona, and the other half from the Spaniards, Mosen Aguilar and Pedro Camps.
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In this he is styled librero de Barcelona, so no doubt he is the same person. It is not until that The spelling of this name varies in the books themselves.